Defining the cultural care needs of Syrian university students in Türkiye using Leininger's Sunrise Model

Abstract views: 129 / PDF downloads: 55




Culture, culturally competent care, students, Syria, universities, Türkiye


Nurses are expected to recognize the cultures of their patients and provide suitable medical service. Accordingly, the medical services to be provided to foreign students who come from different cultures and whose numbers are on the rise should be adapted to the cultures of these students. This study aimed to use the Leininger’s Sunrise Model for determining the cultural care needs of Syrian University Students in Türkiye. This qualitative study was conducted using the ethno-nursing research method. The sample of the study consisted of 19 Syrian undergraduate students. The Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) reporting guidelines were used in both the framing and reporting of this study to guarantee that sufficient details on the methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation were provided. The data examined under the 12 titles was assessed with the descriptive analysis method used in qualitative research. Students noted that care was provided voluntarily in their cultures, that families had the responsibility of providing care, that they needed professional and religious care simultaneously, and that the obstacles of receiving nursing care were language, gender, and privacy. Results in this study indicate that cultural values and beliefs had a significant impact on receiving medical care, and that professional and traditional treatments were used based on relevant cases.


Download data is not yet available.


Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development-OECD. Education at a Glance 2020 - Global insights. OECD.

Ünal S. The new actors of international migration: a comparative analysis of foreign students’ experiences in a medium-sized city in Turkey. People’s Movements in the 21st Century-risks, Challenges and Benefits. 2017;232-57.

Lee JS. Challenges of international students in a Japanese university: Ethnographic perspectives. JIS. 2017;7(1):73-93. doi:10.32674/jis.v7i1.246.

Belford N. International students from Melbourne describing their cross-cultural transitions experiences: Culture shock, social interaction, and friendship development. JIS. 2017;7(3): 499-521. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.569941.

Newsome LK, Cooper P. International students’ cultural and social experiences in a British University: “Such a hard life is here.” JIS. 2016;6(1):195-215.

Çetin Y, Bahar M, Griffiths C. International students’ views on local culture: Turkish experience. JIS. 2017;7(3):467-85. doi: 10.528/zenodo.569940 10.32674/jis.v7i3.204.

Zonp Özaslan Z, Uysal Yalçın S, Alptekin HM, Şimşek Şahin E, Erdoğan B, Aydın Er R. Study process experience of foreign students in nursing department. Journal of Anatolia Nursing and Health Sciences. 2019;22(3):170-8.

Gül M, Şaşman Kaylı D. A qualitative study on the perception of social exclusion in Syrian university students in Turkey: Usak University sample [in Turkish]. Toplum ve Sosyal Hizmet. 2020;31(3):985-1007. doi: 10.33417/tsh.688774.

Gülerce H, Çorlu R. Social cohesion and conflict areas of Syrian asylum seeker students in higher education [in Turkish]. JOSOC. 2021;12:71-106. doi: 10.32739/uskudarsbd.7.12.85.

Levent F, Gül FÖ, Aydemir T. The University experiences of Syrian students in Turkey [in Turkish]. Milli Egitim Dergisi. 2021;50(1):807-35. doi: 10.37669/milliegitim.873198.

Taşar HH. Higher education problems of Syrian refugees in Turkey Adıyaman University sample [in Turkish]. Adiyaman University Journal of Social Sciences. 2019;31:160-87.

Babadağ B, Çulha İ, Köşgeroğlu N. Determination of health problems faced by foreign students studying at a school of health [in Turkish]. Gümüşhane University Journal of Health Sciences. 2014;3(1):622-31.

Tanrıverdi G. Etnik ve kültürel değerlendirme ve klinik karar verme. In: F. Eti Aslan (Ed.), Sağlığın Değerlendirilmesi ve Klinik Karar Verme [in Turkish]. Akademisyen Tıp Kitapevi, 2017. pp. 3-16

Backlund M, Olausson S. Nurses’ experiences as care providers for refugees in emergency and critical care in Jordan: A qualitative interview study. Glob Qual Nurs Res. 2021;8:1-14. doi: 10.1177/23333936211056932.

Council of Higher Education. Higher Education System. 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 5 February 2021).

Yurttas S. Reflections of prejudice and stereotypes towards Syrian refugees upon Turkestani students in Turkey [in Turkish]. Journal of Social Policy Studies. 2020;20(49):961-85. doi:

Celik MY, Copur EO. Syrian immigrant nursing student’s difficulties experienced in the education process: Qualitative study. Austin J Nurs Health Care. 2021;8(1):1055. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2021.105240.

Akgül Gündoğdu N, Taş F, Selçuk-Tosun A. Nursing care experiences with Syrian refugees in southern Turkey: A metaphor analysis. J Nurs Res. 2022;30(3):208. doi: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000489.

Tong A, Sainsbury P, Craig J. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): A 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. IJQHC. 2007;19(6):349-57. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm042.

Leininger M. Culture care assessments for congruent competency practices. In: M. Leininger, M.R. McFarland (Eds.), Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research and Practice McGraw Hill, 2002. 137-9 p.

Erdoğan S. Qualitative studies. In S. Erdoğan, N. Nahcivan, N. Esin (Eds.) Research in Nursing: Process, Practice and Critical, Nobel Tıp Kitapevleri, İstanbul. 2014. 131-64 p.

Rassool G. Cultural competence in nursing Muslim patients. Nurs Times. 2015;111(14):12-5.

Wehbe-Alamah HB. Folk care beliefs and practices of traditional Lebanese and Syrian Muslims in the Midwestern United States. In McFarland M.R., Wehbe-Alamah H.B. (Eds.), Culture care diversity and universality: A worldwide nursing theory, Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2015. 137-81 p.

Wehbe-Alamah HB. Culture care of Syrian Muslims in the midwestern United States: An Ethnonursing Research Study. In M.R. McFarland, H.B. Wehbe-Alamah (Eds.), Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Concepts, Theories, Research and Practice, McGraw Hill. 2018. 421-32 p.

Wehbe-Alamah HB. Generic care of Lebanese Muslim Women in the midwestern USA. In M.M. Leininger, M.R. McFarland (Eds.), Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Worldwide Nursing Theory, Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2006. 307-26 p.

Azar NG, Haddad LG, Umlauf MG. Jordian Americans. In: J.N. Giger (Ed.), Transcultural Nursing: Assestment and Intervention, Elsevier. 2017. 633-45 p.

Kulwicki AD, Ballout S. People of heritage. In L. Purnell (Ed.), Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, Davis Company. 2013. pp. 159–177.

Luna L. Arab Muslims and culture care. In: M. Leininger, M.R. McFarland (Eds.), Transcultural Nursing Concepts, Theories, Research and Practice, McGraw Hill. 2002. 301-11 p.

Wehbe-Alamah H. Generic and professional health care beliefs, expressions and practices of Syrian Muslims living in the Midwestern United States (Doctoral dissertation).2005.

Green M. Language barriers and health of Syrian refugees in Germany. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(4):486. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303676.

Bilecen B, Yurtseven D. Temporarily protected Syrians’ access to the healthcare system in Turkey: Changing policies and remaining challenges. Migrat Lett. 2018;15(1):113-24. doi: 10.33182/ml.v15i1.344.

Sağır A, Aydın E. Analysis on the socio-economical and socio-cultural profiles of Syrian students who receive education at the universities in Turkey [in Turkish]. Adam Acad. 2020;10(1):153-82. doi: 10.31679/adamakademi. 598319.

Sevinç S. Nurses’ experiences in a Turkish internal medicine clinic with Syrian refugees. J Transcult Nurs. 2018;29(3):258-64. doi: 10.1177/1043659617711502.

Bischoff A, Hudelson P. Communicating with foreign language-speaking patients: Is access to professional interpreters enough? J Travel Med. 2010;17(1):15-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8305.2009.00314.x.

Balcilar M. Health status survey of Syrian refugees in Turkey: non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance among Syrian refugees living in Turkey. World Health Organization: Ankara, Turkey. 2016.




How to Cite

Gulyenli, N., & Tanrıverdi, G. (2024). Defining the cultural care needs of Syrian university students in Türkiye using Leininger’s Sunrise Model. HEALTH SCIENCES QUARTERLY, 4(2), 145–153.



Original Article