Investigation of the protective effect of vitamin K1 on the heart in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes model
Abstract views: 126 / PDF downloads: 98
Keywords:Chick embryo, diabetes mellitus , heart , streptozotocin , vitamin K1
Maternal and fetal diabetes are directly associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. Along with this increased risk, the incidence of congenital malformations in newborns also increases depending on the mother’s diabetes. Vitamin K1 is used as a therapeutic and protective agent in diabetes and various clinical conditions. For this reason, it was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin K1 on chick embryo hearts immunohistochemically and morphologically by creating type 1 diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin in a chick embryo model. In our study, 5 different experimental groups will be created and a total of 50 SPF fertilized eggs, 10 in each group, will be used. The first group will be the control group, the second group will be the diabetes group, and the other three groups will be the treatment groups given different doses of vitamin K1. All solutions will be given on the 12th day of
incubation, and the hearts of all embryos will be analyzed immunohistochemically and morphologically on the 18th day of incubation. It was determined that the weight, length and ventricular thickness of the chick embryo hearts were statistically significantly decreased in the streptozotocin group compared to the control group embryo hearts. It was determined that the heart weights, lengths, and ventricular thicknesses increased depending on the dose of vitamin K1 compared to the streptozotocin group in the groups therapeutically administered vitamin K1 (p<0.05). In addition, caspase-3 expression was also evaluated in our study, and a statistically significant increase was found in the streptozotocin group compared to the control group. Again, as a result of vitamin K1 administration, caspase-3 expressions decreased depending on the applied dose (p<0.05). In conclusion, it was concluded that
the therapeutically applied vitamin K1 to diabetes mellitus reduces the degenerative and hyperplastic effects of diabetes mellitus.
American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):62–9. doi: 10.2337/dc10 S062.
Hanson U, Persson B. Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by type 1 insulindependent diabetes in Sweden: acute pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality and morbidity. Am J Perinatol Hanson. 1993;10(4):330–3. doi: 10.1055/s-2007- 994754.
Kjos SL, Buchanan TA. Gestational diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(23):1749–56. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199912023412307.
Platt MJ, Stanisstreet M, Casson IF, Howard CV, Walkinshaw S, Pennycook S, et al. StVincent’s Declaration 10 years on : Outcomes
of diabetes. 2002;19:216–20. doi: 10.1046/j.1464- 5491.2002.00665.x.
Evers IM, De Valk HW, Visser GHA. Risk of complications of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes: Nationwide prospective study in the Netherlands. Br Med J. 2004;328(7445):915–8. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38043.583160.EE.
Macintosh MC, Fleming KM, Bailey JA, Doyle P, Modder J, Acolet D, et al. Perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women with type 1or type 2 diabetes in England Wales, and Northern Ireland: Population based. BrMed J. 2006;333(7560):177–82. doi: 10.1136/ bmj.38856.692986.AE.
Loffredo CA, Wilson PD, Ferencz C. Maternal diabetes: An independent risk factor for major cardiovascular malformations with increased mortality of affected infants. Teratology. 2001;64(2):98–106. doi: 10.1002/tera.1051.
Wang Z, Gleichmann H. GLUT2 in pancreatic islets: Crucial target molecule in diabetes induced with multiple low doses of streptozotocin in mice. Diabetes. 1998;47:50–6. doi: 10.2337/diab.47.1.50.
Kurçer Z, Karaoğlu D. The use of alloxan and streptozotocin in experimental diabetes models (in Turkish). Turkish J Endocrinol Metab.
Bozkurt E, Atay E, Bilir A, Ertekin A, Buğra Koca H, Cem Sabaner M. A novel model of early type 1 diabetes mellitus: The chick embryo air sack model. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021;28(10):5538–46. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.08.074.
Zähner D, Malaisse WJ. Kinetic behaviour of liver glucokinase in diabetes. I. Alteration in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes Res.
Bolzán AD, Bianchi MS. Genotoxicity of streptozotocin. Mutat Res - Rev Mutat Res. 2002;512:121–34. doi: 10.1016/S1383-5742(02)00044-3.
Bozkurt E, Atay E, Koca OH, Sabaner MC. The effect of vitamin K1 on VEGF levels in chick embryos with type 1 diabetes and diabetic
retinopathy induced by streptozotocin. Med Sci Discov. 2021;8(9):551–5. doi: 10.36472/msd. v8i9.604.
Dihingia A, Ozah D, Ghosh S, Sarkar A, Baruah PK, Kalita J, et al. Vitamin K1 inversely correlates with glycemia and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and positively regulates SIRT1/AMPK pathway of glucose metabolism in liver of T2D mice and hepatocytes cultured in high glucose. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;52:103–14.doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.09.022.
Sivajothi V, Dakappa SS. In vitro and in silico antidiabetic activity of pyran ester derivative isolated from Tragia cannabina. Asian Pac
J Trop Biomed. 2014;4:455–9. doi: 10.12980/ APJTB.4.2014C1049.
Shi L, Ko ML, Huang CCY, Park SY, Hong MP, Wu C, et al. Chicken embryos as a potential new model for early onset type 1 diabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2014;2014:1–10. doi: 10.1155/2014/354094.
Ertekin T, Bilir A, Aslan E, Koca B, Turamanlar O, Ertekin A, et al. The effect of diclofenac sodium on neural tube development in the early stage of chick embryos. Folia Morphol (Poland). 2019;78: 307–13. doi: 10.5603/FM.a2018.0080.
Rakip U, Bilir A, Arikan ES. Effect of pethidine hydrochloride on the development of neural tube: A genetic analysis study in a chick embryo model. World Neurosurg. 2021;150:613–20. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.03.065.
Wang H, Chen P, Liu XX, Zhao W, Shi L, Gu XW, et al. Prognostic impact of gastrointestinal bleeding and expression of PTEN and Ki-67 on primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors. World J Surg Oncol. 2014;2(1):1–10. doi: 10.1186/1477- 7819-12-89.
Memon S, Pratten MK. Teratogenic effects of diabetic conditions in chick heart in ovo and in micromass culture may be prevented by
addition of vitamin C and folic acid. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;35(1):117–24. doi: /10.1016/j. reprotox.2012.10.007.
Wang G, Liang J, Gao LR, Si ZP, Zhang XT, Liang G, et al. Baicalin administration attenuates hyperglycemia-induced malformation of
cardiovascular system article. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9(2):1–17. doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-0318-2.
Mohammed OJ, Latif ML, Pratten MK. Diabetes-induced effects on cardiomyocytes in chick embryonic heart micromass and
mouse embryonic D3 differentiated stem cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2017;69:242–53. doi: 10.1016/j. reprotox.2017.03.006.
Datar SP, Bhonde RR. Modeling chick to assess diabetes pathogenesis and treatment. Rev Diabet Stud. 2011;8(2):71–84. doi: 10.1900/ RDS.2011.8.245.
Datar S, Bhonde RR. Shell-less chick embryo culture as an alternative in vitro model to investigate glucose-induced malformations
in mammalian embryos. Rev Diabet Stud. 2005;2(4):221–7. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2005.2.221.
Bostancıeri N, Elbe H, Eşrefoğlu M, Vardı N. Cardioprotective potential of melatonin, quercetin and resveratrol in an experimental model of diabetes. Biotech Histochem. 2022;97(2):152–7. doi: 10.1080/10520295.2021.1918766.
Varsha MKNS, Thiagarajan R, Manikandan R, Dhanasekaran G. Vitamin K1 alleviates streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes by
mitigating free radical stress, as well as inhibiting NF-κB activation and INOS expression in rat pancreas. Nutr. 2015;31(1):214–22. doi: 10.1016/j. nut.2014.05.012.
Ibarrola-Jurado N, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez- González MA, Bulló M. Dietary phylloquinone intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):1113–8. doi: 10.3945/ ajcn.111.033498.
Varsha MKNS, Thiagarajan R, Manikandan R, Dhanasekaran G. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats. Nutr. 2015;31(10):1284–92. doi: 10.1016/j. nut.2015.05.012.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Holistence Publications
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
When the article is accepted for publication in the HSQ authors transfer all copyright in the article to the Holistence Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti.The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.
Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and should take public responsibility for it.
This paper contains works that have not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals.