Analyses of food supplements intake behaviour in peri-pandemic period
Abstract views: 162 / PDF downloads: 134
Keywords:Food Supplementation, Peri-Pandemic Period, Health Anxiety, Fear of Covid-19, Covid-19
The aim of this study is to analyse “food supplements intake behaviour” in Turkey. To do this, we aimed to identify the behaviours and the motivations of supplementary food intakes in the pre and the peri-pandemic periods. In addition, we revealed income effects on food supplements intake behaviour in the pre-, and the peri-pandemic periods.
The data of the study consists of 311 individuals living in Turkey who were selected by snowball sampling. Data were collected via a virtual environment between May - June 2021. Descriptive statistics, parametric tests and concentration analyses were employed to reveal the potential motivations of the increase in food supplements intake in the peri-pandemic period. Parametric tests, concentration analysis, and logistic regressions were further performed to identify income effects on (i) food supplements taking behaviour and (ii) the increase in food supplements intake in the peri-pandemic period, respectively.
We found that almost half of the respondents took food supplements. In addition, health anxiety and Covid-19 fear levels were revealed to be increasingly effective on the intake of food supplements intake in the peri-pandemic period. Furthermore, income was identified as a determinant of food supplement intake in the pre-pandemic period while no income effects were observed on the increase of food supplement intakes in the peri-pandemic period. This might imply that food supplements could be considered as compulsory food during the pandemic. To clarify this issue, further research investigating income effects on the demand of food supplements in inflationary environment in peri-pandemic period is required.
• AHORSU, D.K., LIN, C-Y., IMANI, V., SAFFARI, M., GRIFFITHS, M. D., & PAKPOUR, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8.
• AL TAMIMI, J. Z. (2019). Awareness of the consumption of dietary supplements among students in a University in Saudi Arabia. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2019 (1-10).
• ALTUN, H. K., ERMUMCU, M. S. K., & KURKLU, N. S. (2021). Evaluation of dietary supplement, functional food, and herbal medicine use by dietitians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public Health Nutrition. 24(5), 861-869.
• ALWAFAZ, H. A., KHAN, N., ALJUMAH, G. A., HUSSAIN, S. D., AL-DAGHRI, N. M. (2021). Dietary Intake and Supplement Use Among Saudi Residents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18, 6435.
• ALYAMI, H. S., ORABI, M. A., ALDHABBAH, F. M., ALTURKI, H. N., ABURAS, W. I., ALFAYEZ, A. I., ... & ALSUHAIBANI, N. A. (2020). Knowledge about COVID-19 and beliefs about and use of herbal products during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 28(11). 1326-1332.
• AYDEMİR, O., KİRPİNAR, I., SATİ, T., UYKUR, B. & CENGİSİZ, C. (2013). Sağlık Anksiyetesi Ölçeği›nin Türkçe için Güvenilirlik ve Geçerlilik Çalışması. Archives of Neuropsychiatry. 50(4).
• BAE, J. H., CHOE, H. J., HOLICK, M. F. & LIM, S. (2022). Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 and Its Severity. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. 1-21.
• BAILEY, R. L., GAHCHE, J. J., MILLER, P. E., THOMAS, P. R. & DWYER, J. T. (2013). Why US Adults Use Dietary Supplements. JAMA Internal Medicine.173(5), 355-361.
• BAKIOGLU, F., KORKMAZ, O. & ERCAN, H. (2020). Fear Of Covid-19 And Positivity: Mediating Role Of Intolerance Of Uncertainty, Depression, Anxiety and Stress. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00331.
• BALTACIOĞLU, M.S. (2019). Akdeniz Üniversitesi Hastanesi aile hekimliği polikliniğine başvuran 18 yaş üzeri hastalarda gıda takviyesi kullanımı ve hastaların bu konudaki bilinç düzeyi. Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Aile Hekimliği Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Antalya.
• BARNES, K., BALL, L., DESBROW, B., ALSHARAİRİ, N. & AHMED, F. (2016). Consumption and reasons for use of dietary supplements in an Australian university population. Nutrition. 32(5), 524-530.
• BAYKAL, E. (2020). Covid-19 Bağlamında Psikolojik Dayanıklılık, Kaygı ve Yaşam Doyum İlişkisi. International Journal of Social and Economic Sciences. 10(2), 68-80.
• CAVDAR, B., CİNEL, Y., BAYAZIT, B., & YILMAZ, O. (2018). Fitness Merkezlerinde Egzersiz Yapan Bireylerin Besin Takviyesi Kullanımı ile İlgili Görüşlerinin Belirlenmesi. Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Uluslararası Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(2).
• CELİK, C., GENCAY, A. & OCSOY, I. (2021). Can food and food supplements be deployed in the fight against the COVID 19 pandemic? Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects. 1865(2), 129801.
• CHEN, J., MEI, K., XIE, L., YUAN, P., MA, J., YU, P., ... & LIU, X. (2021). Low vitamin D levels do not aggravate COVID-19 risk or death, and vitamin D supplementation does not improve outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis and GRADE assessment of cohort studies and RCTs. Nutrition Journal. 20(1), 1-10.
• CHOI, J. (2019). The association between health conditions, consciousness, involvement, and knowledge and dietary supplement intake among university students in South Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16(20), 4028.
• COLGEÇEN, Y. & COLGEÇEN, H. (2020). Covid-19 Pandemisine Bağlı Yaşanan Kaygı Düzeylerinin Değerlendirilmesi: Türkiye Örneği. Electronic Turkish Studies, 15(4).
• COWAN, A. E., JUN, S., GAHCHE, J. J., TOOZE, J. A., DWYER, J. T., EICHER-MILLER, H. A., ... & BAILEY, R. L. (2018). Dietary supplement use differs by socioeconomic and health-related characteristics among US adults, NHANES 2011–2014. Nutrients. 10(8), 1114.
• DE FARIA COELHO-RAVAGNAN, C., CORGOSINHO, F. C., SANCHES, F.L.F.Z., PRADO, C. M.M., LAVİANO, A., & MOTA, J.F. (2021). Dietary recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nutrition reviews. 79(4), 382- 393.
• DEL BALZO, V., VITIELLO, V., GERMANI, A., DONINI, L.M., POGGIOGALLE, E., & PINTO, A. (2014). A CrossSectional Survey on Dietary Supplements Consumption Among Italian Teenagers. PloS one,. 9(7), e100508.
• DEMIR, G., KILICKALKAN, B., & TAKAK, M.K. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemisi Sürecinde Yetişkinlerin Besin Destekleri Kullanımlarının İncelenmesi. Genel Tıp Dergisi. 31(4), 430-439.
• DEMİREL, O. (2021). Covid-19 Pandemisi Sürecinde Destekleyici Gıda Takviyesi Talebini Etkileyen Faktörlerin Analizi. İtobiad: İnsan ve Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi. 10(4).
• DICKINSON, A. & MACKAY, D. (2014). Health Habits and Other Characteristics of Dietary Supplement Users: A Review. Nutrition Journal, 13, 14. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-14.
• DOST, A., UNER, E. & SUSOY, A. (2021). COVID-19 Pandemisi Besin Desteklerini Kullanma Durumunu Etkiledi Mi?. Van Tıp Dergisi. 28(4): 538-545, 2021. DOI: 10.5505/vtd.2021. 25483.
• EGAN, B., HODGKINS, C., SHEPHERD, R., TIMOTIJEVIC, L., & RAATS, M. (2011). An overview of consumer attitudes and beliefs about plant food supplements. Food & function,. 2(12), 747-752.
• EL KHOURY, G., RAMADAN, W., & ZEENI, N. (2016). Herbal products and dietary supplements: a cross-sectional survey of use, attitudes, and knowledge among the Lebanese population. Journal of Community Health. 41(3), 566-573.
• FOOD SUPPLEMENTATION AND NUTRITION ASSOCIATION (2020). Gıda Takviyesi Kullanımı ve Beslenme Alışkanlıkları Ölçümü Anketi – Aralık 2020 https://gtbd.org.tr/gida-takviyesi-kullanimi-ve-beslenme-aliskanliklariolcumu-anketi-aralik-2020/, (Date Accessed: 19/02/2022).
• GONG, W., LIU, A., YAO, Y., MA, Y., DING, C., SONG, C., ... & DING, G. (2018). Nutrient supplement use among the Chinese population: A cross-sectional study of the 2010–2012 china nutrition and health surveillance. Nutrients. 10(11), 1733.
• GREBOW, J. (2021). Peak Dietary Supplement Sales Levelling Off During COVID-19 Pandemic, but Growth Still Remains Strong Over Last Year, Market Researchers Report During Webcast. Available online: https://www. nutritionaloutlook.com/view/peak-dietary-supplement-sales-leveling-during-covid-19-pandemic-growth-stillremains-strong (Date Accesed: 19/02/2022).
• GREENE, W. H. (2018). The econometric analysis. Pearson 8th Edition.
• HAMULKA, J., JERUSZKA-BIELAK, M., GÓRNICKA, M., DRYWIEŃ, M.E., & ZIELINSKA-PUKOS, M.A. (2021). Dietary supplements during COVID-19 outbreak. results of google trends analysis supported by PLifeCOVID-19 online studies. Nutrients. 13(1), 54.
• GUJARATI, D. N. (2004). Basic Econometrics, 4th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies.
• HWANG, J.H., CHO, H.J., IM, H.B., JUNG, Y.S., CHOI, S. J., & HAN, D. (2020). Complementary and alternative medicine use among outpatients during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea: a cross-sectional study. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. 20(1), 1-10.
• KANAK, E.K., ÖZTÜRK, S.N., ÖZDEMİR, Y., ASAN, K. & YILMAZ ÖZTÜRK, S. (2021). Gıda Takviyeleri Kullanım Alışkanlıklarının Değerlendirilmesi. Niğde Ömer Halisdemir Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi. 10(1), 168- 177.
• KARAPINAR, D. Ç. (2021). Covid-19 Pandemisi Döneminde Aile İçi İletişim ve Yalnızlık. Third Sector Social Economic Review. 56(3), 1736-1753.
• KAUFMAN, D. W., KELLY, J.P., ROSENBERG, L., ANDERSON, T.E., & MITCHELL, A. A. (2002). Recent Patterns Of Medication Use In The Ambulatory Adult Population Of The United States: The Slone Survey. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 287(3), 337-344.
• KAYA, S., UZDİL, Z., & CAKİROĞLU, F.P. (2021). Evaluation of the effects of fear and anxiety on nutrition during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. Public Health Nutrition. 24(2), 282–289.
• KOBAYASHI, E., SATO, Y., UMEGAKI, K., & CHIBA, T. (2017). The Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use Among College Students: A Nationwide Survey In Japan. Nutrients. 9(11), 1250.
• KRISTOFFERSEN, A.E., VAN DER WERF, E.T., STUB, T., MUSIAL, F., WIDER, B., JONG, M.C., ... & NORDBERG, J.H. (2022). Consultations with health care providers and use of self-management strategies for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 related symptoms. A population based cross-sectional study in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands. Complementary Therapies In Medicine. 64, 102792.
• LAKE, M. A. (2020). What We Know So Far: Covid-19 Current Clinical Knowledge and Research. Clinical Medicine. 20(2), 124.
• LAM, C.S., KOON, H.K., CHUNG, V.C.H., & CHEUNG, Y.T. (2021). A Public Survey of Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine Use During the Covid-19 Outbreak in Hong Kong. PloS One. 16(7), e0253890.
• LEE, Y.K., GEORGIOU, C. & RAAB, C. (2000). The knowledge, attitudes, and practices of dietitians licensed in Oregon regarding functional foods, nutrient supplements, and herbs as complementary medicine. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 100(5), 543-548.
• LORDAN, R. (2021). Dietary Supplements And Nutraceuticals Market Growth During the Coronavirus Pandemic – Implications for Consumers and Regulatory Oversight. Pharmanutrition. 18, 100282.
• MATTIOLI, A.V., SCIOMER, S., COCCHI, C., MAFFEI, S., & GALLINA, S. (2020). Quarantine During Covid-19 Outbreak: Changes in Diet And Physical Activity Increase The Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 30(9), 1409-1417.
• MESTAGHANMI H, LABRIJI A, KEHAILOU FZ, ET AL. (2021) Study of the Association Between the Consumption of Dietary Supplements And Lifestyle Factors In a Population Of Moroccan Academics During the Covid 19 Health Crisis. Open Access Library Journal. 8, e7585.
• MISHRA, S. & POTISCHMAN, N. (2021). Dietary Supplement Use Among Adults: United States. NCHS Data Briefs 399, 8.
• MOHSEN, H., YAZBECK, N., AL-JAWALDEH, A., BOU CHAHINE, N., HAMIEH, H., MOURAD, Y., & HOTEIT, M. (2021). Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related To Dietary Supplementation, Before And During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in the Lebanese Population. International journal of environmental research and public health. 18(16), 8856.
• MUKATTASH, T.L., ALKHALIDY, H., ALZU’BI, B., ABU-FARHA, R., ITANI, R., KAROUT, S., KHOJAH, H.M.J., KHDOUR, M., EL-DAHIYAT, F. & JARAB, A. (2022). Dietary Supplements Intake During the Second Wave of Covid-19 Pandemic: A Multinational Middle Eastern Study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 49, 102102.
• O’DONNELL O. & VAN DOORSLAER, E. & WAGSTAFF, A. 2006. Decomposition of Inequalities in Health and Health Care, Chapters, in: Andrew M. Jones (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, chapter 17, Edward Elgar Publishing.
• OZBEKLER, T.M. (2019). Değişen Beslenme Alışkanlıkları Perspektifinde Takviye Edici Gıdalar: Tüketiciler Ne Kadar Bilinçli. International Social Sciences Studies Journal. 5(51), 6866-6882.
• OZENOGLU, A., CEVIK, E., COLAK, H., ALTINTAS, T., & ALAKUS, K. (2021). Changes in Nutrition and Lifestyle Habits During the Covid-19 Pandemic In Turkey And The Effects Of Healthy Eating Attitudes. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. (Preprint), 1-17.
• PEDROSA, L. F. C., BARROS, A. N. A. B., & LEITE-LAIS, L. (2022). Nutritional Risk of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, And Selenium Deficiency on Risk And Clinical Outcomes of Covid-19: A Narrative Review. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 47, 9–27.
• PIEA-PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY EMPLOYERS ASSOCIATION (2020) Türkiye İlaç Sektörü 2020. http://ieis.org.tr/ieis/assets/front/sektorraporu2020/Turkiye_Ilac_Sektoru_2020_Raporu.pdf (Date Accessed: 19/02/2022).
• POLATCAN, İ., & KAPTANGİL, İ. (2021). Beden Eğitimi Ve Spor Yüksekokulunda Eğitim Alan Öğrencilerin Yeni Tip Koronavirüse (Covid-19) Yakalanma Kaygılarının Incelenmesi. Journal of Turkish Studies, 16(3), 1179-1194.
• RAWAT, D., ROY, A., MAITRA, S., GULATI, A., KHANNA, P., & BAIDYA, D. K. (2021). Vitamin C And Covid-19 Treatment: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 15(6), 102324.
• RUIZ-ROSO, M. B., KNOTT-TORCAL, C., MATILLA-ESCALANTE, D. C., GARCIMARTÍN, A., SAMPEDRONUÑEZ, M. A., DÁVALOS, A., & MARAZUELA, M. (2020). COVID-19 lockdown and changes of the dietary pattern and physical activity habits in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrients, 12(8), 2327.
• SALATHÉ, M., ALTHAUS, C. L., NEHER, R., STRİNGHİNİ, S., HODCROFT, E., FELLAY, J., ... & LOW, N. (2020). COVID-19 epidemic in Switzerland: on the importance of testing, contact tracing and isolation. Swiss medical weekly, 150(1112).
• SALKOVSKİS, P. M., RİMES, K.A., WARWİCK, H.M.C., & CLARK, D.M. (2002). The Health Anxiety Inventory: development and validation of scales for the measurement of health anxiety and hypochondriasis. Psychological medicine, 32(5), 843-853.
• SAMAR, E. (2021). Pandemi Sürecinde Spor Salonlarında Egzersiz Yapan Kişilerde Gıda Takviyesi Kullanma Durumunun İncelenmesi. ISPEC International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 5(2), 189-203.
• SAMI, R., ALSHEHRY, G., ELGARNI, E., & HELAL, M. (2021). Saudi Community Care Awareness Food Facts, Nutrients, Immune System And Covid-19 Prevention in Taif City Among Different Age Categories. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 21(1), 17213-17233.
• SHARMA, A. & ADIGA, S. (2014). Knowledge, Attitude, And Practices Related to Dietary Supplements And Micronutrients In Health Sciences Students. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 8(8), HC10.
• SIDOR, A. & RZYMSKI, P. (2020). Dietary Choices And Habits During Covid-19 Lockdown: Experience from Poland. Nutrients. 12(6), 1657.
• TEKKURSUN DEMİR, G., CİCİOĞLU, H.İ. (2019). Sağlıklı Beslenmeye İlişkin Tutum Ölçeği (SBİTÖ): Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi. 4(2), 256-274.
• TOLUN, B. G. & BULUT, N. (2021). Covid-19 Pandemi Sürecinde Tüketicilerin Gıda Ürünleri Satın Alma Davranışları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. (45), 15-31.
• TUNÇER, E. ÖZDEMİR, V.T., ŞİMŞEK, H., KARAAĞAÇ, Y., & AYHAN, N.Y. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Besin Desteği Kullanma Durumlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Kırşehir Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 1(2), 91-101.
• WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2020). Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations, www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-viruscausing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations.
• ZHAO, A., LI, Z., KE, Y., HUO, S., MA, Y., ZHANG, Y., ... & REN, Z. (2020). Dietary Diversity among Chinese Residents During the Covid-19 Outbreak and Its Associated Factors. Nutrients. 12(6), 1699.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Holistence Publications
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.