JOURNAL OF LIFE ECONOMICS https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Journal of Life Economics <strong>(E-ISSN: 2148-4139 &amp; DOI Prefix: 10.15607)</strong></em> is <strong>an international peer-reviewed </strong>and<strong> periodical journal.</strong><em> It aims to create a forum on economic rationale of life. It brings together the views and studies of academicians, researchers and professionals working in economics. The journal aims to include original papers in the main titles of economics. In this framework, high quality theoretical and applied articles are going to be published. </em>The articles in the Journal is published in 4 times a year; WINTER (January), SPRING (April), SUMMER (July) and AUTUMN (October).</p> en-US <p><em>When the&nbsp; article is accepted for publication in the </em><em>Journal of Life Economics</em><em>, authors transfer all copyright in the article to the </em><em>Rating Academy </em><em>Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti</em><em>.</em><em>The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and</em><em> should take public responsibility for it.</em></p> <p><em>Th</em><em>is paper contains works that have </em><em>not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals. </em></p> ozge@comu.edu.tr (Özge UYSAL ŞAHİN) ratingacademy@ratingacademy.com (Ali Öztekin) Sat, 15 Aug 2020 10:45:02 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 TAX INCOME ELASTICITY IN EXCISE TAXES: COMPARISON OF TURKEY AND OECD https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/1123 <p><em>Taxes, which are the main fiscal policy tool for sustainable development in a country, are the major type of public revenue. Taxes have economic and social purposes besides generating income. One of the important parameters of the creation of the tax system that will accomplish these objectives is tax elasticity. Knowing the tax elasticity the tax system's ability to be an automatic stabilizer, increased proportionality and targeted tax revenue estimate is important. An inelastic tax system in a country would create uncertainty about the taxes to be collected. The aim of this study is to compare the theoretical value of tax elasticity in excise tax in Turkey in the period 2002-2019 with OECD countries. Tax income elasticity is an important tool in measuring the fulfillment of expectations of the excise tax, which is one of the main building blocks of the tax system due to its functions such as preventing negative externalities and reducing increasing proportionality. The results of the study showed that the tax income elasticity in Turkey in the excise tax is lower than in OECD countries.</em></p> Filiz GİRAY, Gizem ZEREN Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/1123 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A MODEL PROPOSAL FOR THE IMPACT OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP ON THE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE WORK BEHAVIOURS AND INTENTION TO LEAVE https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/1078 <p><em>The importance of employees for organizational sustainability in today's business life, which is described as the information age, is particularly important. The fact that the human element becomes the most valuable of the production factors increases this importance. Having leadership approaches that will affect employees in their efforts for organizational processes, increases individual and corporate performance and satisfaction. In this context, the fact that employee behaviors are determinant on organizational outcomes, leads researchers to conduct studies on behavioral attitudes. Toxic leadership, which has been considered as a popular concept in recent years, is evaluated as an undesirable factor for organizations and employees. The idea that toxic leadership may negatively affect employee behavior and attitudes is the basis of the model proposal in this study. Toxic leadership, a destructive and corrosive leadership type, is expected to accelerate the formation of counter productive work behavior. In addition, it is anticipated that toxic leadership can direct individuals to the intention to leave by reducing employees' willingness to stay in the organization. In this study, toxic leadership, counterproductive work behaviors and intention to leave are conceptually addressed and research questions are created to reveal relationships between these variables.</em></p> İhsan AKCA, Ferruh TUZCUOĞLU Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/1078 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 COINTEGRATION EVIDENCES FROM THE NEW FRAGILE FIVE https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/1148 <p><em>Purpose of this study is to test the association between savings and current account deficit of the “New Fragile Five” falling into critical cycle. 1994-2019 period annual national savings, current account balance and external debt have been analyzed within the framework of panel data analysis. At the modeling stage of the research focused on the cointegration relationship. Panel cointegration tests with structural breaks based on LM were used. To examine the unique economic structures of countries, heterogeneous estimating techniques were employed. The research has four important findings; i.There is a cointegration relationship between indicators, ii.The external debt increases the current account deficit, iii.The increase of savings in Turkey decreases the current account deficit, iv.An increase in savings increases the current account deficit in Argentina, Egypt, Pakistan and Qatar. This study, which will contribute to the expansion of typology, is also contributory to the “Triple Deficit Hypothesis”.</em></p> Gülgün ÇİĞDEM, Merve ALTAYLAR Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/1148 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 GLOBALIZATION AND EFFECTS ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENCES https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/918 <p><em>It is observed in the World economy perspective that regional development differences cannot be still solved in our present day when global system continues. In fact, while it is known that there are income and development differences between the developed countries and underdeveloped countries of the World as from the ancient times of the history, it is clear that due consideration is not attached to the inequality problems. For this reason, it is tried to find the impacts of the utilization opportunities provided with globalization and the reasons leading the problems to continue within the scope of this research conducted on increasing the social and economic development levels in the underdeveloped countries thanks to the global system. Although too long years have passed after the starting of the globalization in the World, both there are development differences among the countries located in different regions and the social and economic development differences continue in the different regions within the own national boundaries of any country. The subject of completely removing the inequality and poverty that are the leading ones among the most important problems expected to be solved with the globalization system include the regional development analyses for the purpose of identifying, the intentions of the globalization policies and responsibilities of country government. According to the results of these analyses, while the impacts of the global system on the regional development differences are evaluated, it is aimed to reach the truest provisions required to protect the national interests of the underdeveloped countries in the international commercial activities increasing with the globalization, to re-identify the provisions of the harmonization to globalization and to prevent the negative impacts of the international trade agreements issued. </em></p> İbrahim Bora ORAN Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://journals.gen.tr/jlecon/article/view/918 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000