JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVES <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Journal of Scientific Perspectives</strong> (E-ISSN: 2587-3008 &amp; DOI Prefix:&nbsp;10.26900)&nbsp;is a&nbsp;scholarly&nbsp;and&nbsp;international peer-reviewed journal&nbsp;which started to be published in&nbsp; 2017. It is an&nbsp;open-access electronic journal&nbsp;which is published quarterly in&nbsp;January, April, July, and&nbsp;October</em><strong><em>.</em></strong><em>&nbsp;It is aimed at promoting research worldwide&nbsp;and publishes basic and advanced research work from the fields of&nbsp;basic sciences, engineering, natural sciences&nbsp;and&nbsp;health sciences</em><em>. Thus, it provides a forum for researchers for scholarly exchange of ideas, knowledge, and experiences on current issues. The original research papers, technical notes, letters to the editor, debates, case presentations, and reviews, only in&nbsp;English,&nbsp;are published in the journal. All articles published in the journal, are assigned the&nbsp;DOI number. Article submission and follow-up processes are carried out by the manuscript submission system.</em></p> RATING ACADEMY Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti. en-US JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVES 0000-0000 <p><em>When the&nbsp; article is accepted for publication in the </em><em>Journal of Scientific Perspectives</em><em>&nbsp;authors transfer all copyright in the article to the </em><em>Rating Academy </em><em>Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti</em><em>.</em><em>The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and</em><em> should take public responsibility for it.</em></p> <p><em>Th</em><em>is paper contains works that have </em><em>not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals. </em></p> THE EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM APPLICATIONS ON DROUGHT STRESS IN SUGAR BEET: PART I. SUGAR BEET QUALITY COMPONENTS <p><em>This is the first in a series of papers describing the effects of potassium applications on drought stress in sugar beet. Drought stress is the stress to which there is the most exposure in agricultural areas. In this research, the effect of potassium applications under drought stress on some quality parameters of sugar beet, which is a strategic plant, was investigated. In the experiment, irrigation levels were kept at 33%, 66% and 100% of field capacity. Different doses (10-20-40-80 mg kg-1) of potassium were applied to the plants. The plants were grown in the growth chamber under controlled conditions (day/night 16/8 hours, 25/15 0C, 60-70% humidity). A comparison of the plants irrigated at the level of 100% of the field capacity and stressed plants showed that the root sugar content decreased by 53.18% and 65.1%, and shoot sugar content by 20.8% and 17.8% respectively at 66% and 33% irrigation levels. Root white sugar content (58.61 mg g-1) was obtained at the dose of 10 mg kg-1 potassium level, while the lowest (32.61 mg g-1) was obtained at the dose of 80 mg kg-1 potassium level. Shoot protein content has increased significantly with an increasing level of potassium under drought (33% and 66%) condition. The root α-amino nitrogen content decreased under drought stress with increasing potassium concentrations while it increased in non-stressed plants. According to the results obtained from the experiment, the potassium applied to the plants under drought stress led to the increase of the root sugar, root white sugar content and shoot protein content the reduction of root α-amino nitrogen content. Therefore, it can be said that potassium may play a critical role in reducing the negative effect of drought stress in sugar beet.</em></p> Gizem AKSU Hamit ALTAY Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 4 2 157 168 10.26900/jsp.4.013 EFFECTS OF GINGER EXTRACTS ON TOTAL PROTEIN AMOUNT AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM L. <p><em>Zingiber officinale Roscoe, belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a medicinal plant that also spreads in our country. In this research, extracts of Z. officinale rhizomes were prepared with different solvents (ethanol, methanol, distilled water, DMSO). Zingiber rhizome extracts were sprayed on the leaves of rio grande and marmande varieties of 10-12 weeks old Solanum lycopersicum plantlets. Total protein amount and peroxidase activity were examined by spectrophotometrically 24 and 48 hours after the application. According to the results, it was determined that the maximum increase in the total protein amount compared with the control group was 31.31% and 25.53% in marmande and rio grande varieties in ginger rhizome extract prepared with methanol, respectively. The increase in peroxidase activity was determined as 144.14% and 124.85% in marmande and rio grande varieties in ginger rhizome extract prepared with ethanol, respectively. As a result of our research, it was determined that rhizome extracts of Z. officinale can be used as natural plant activator.</em></p> Zeynep ÖZCEYLAN Cüneyt AKI Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-05-17 2020-05-17 4 2 169 176 10.26900/jsp.4.014 ROBUST SIEVE ANALYSIS USING SIEVE-BY-SIEVE METHOD <p><em>Distribution of size of sand grains is an important factor in characterization of unconsolidated reservoirs as well as designing sand control devices. In practice, sand grains are passed through a set of known mesh sizes by mechanical vibration and for a fixed period then the weight of sediments retained on each sieve are measured and converted into the percentage of the total sediment (PTS). This procedure is applied to all core samples and the resulted PTS data are used for characterizing grain size distribution using one of the sieve analysis procedures. The core-by-core method, for example, is one of the conventional methods that PTS data from each core sample are used individually to estimate mean, sorting and other dependent parameters to grain size distribution. In this method, applying a robust statistical method to integrate all PTS data and picking out the most probable size from all cores is a challenge. </em></p> <p><em>A new approach is introduced in this paper as sieve-by-sieve method, whereby the grain weight distribution data are classified based on mesh sizes (as bins) and the most probable size in each class is picked out among all cores directly and without any manipulation or averaging. </em></p> <p><em>In this paper, the performance of both methods are compared in a homogeneous media and a heterogeneous media. In a homogeneous media, both methods provide comparable results. However, in a heterogeneous media, the core-by-core provides too many distributions which sometimes are not conclusive but the sieve-by-sieve provides the profiles of minimum and maximum weight of retained grains, which facilitates picking out the most probable size among all cores.</em></p> Kourosh KHADIVI Shahab HEJRI Shapour VOSOUGHI Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 4 2 83 98 10.26900/jsp.4.007 TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INDUSTRIAL CYBER SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES BASED ON PHOENIX CONTACT COMPANY WIRELESS EQUIPMENT <p><em>Nowadays occurs a jump in approaches to maritime technical systems developing with implementation of Industry 4.0, IIoT, Shipping 4.0 concepts. Progress in wireless technologies allows to perform absolutely new engineering tasks. Maritime branch realizes digital transformation steps, which envisage creation of unmanned, autonomous and remote controlled ships. But such systems are vulnerable for external malicious intrusion. Thus it's necessary to deepen information technologies learning in maritime education in the following directions: IIoT, industrial wired and wireless data transfer technologies and hardware; satellite systems; big data, artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality; remote control; cyber security technologies. National University "Odessa Maritime Academy" participates in Trainings in Automation Technologies for Ukraine project. Obtained mobile equipment allows to study PcWorx and CoDeSys software for automation systems development (based on PLCs) and Profibus, ProfiNet, EtherCAT and wireless technologies. This base equipment may be supplemented by security firewalls. </em></p> <p><em>Ways of modern technologies implementing in maritime branch are analyzed. Directions of deep studying are shown. Actuality and possibilities of cyber security technologies studying are highlighted. Approaches and technologies, successfully realized in education process and planned for future, are described.</em></p> Vladlen SHAPO Maksym LEVINSKYI Valeriy VOLOVSHCHYKOV Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 4 2 99 110 10.26900/jsp.4.008 A CRITICAL APPROACH TO THE PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION METHOD FOR FINDING MAXIMUM POINTS <p><em>Particle Swarm is an optimization method that is used for solving industrial problems and is highly preferred due to its ease of use and it’s ability to find accurate results rapidly in recent years. In this study, it was used to optimize the resistance value of train sets.</em></p> <p><em>There are many types of resistance in train sets and the train can't start moving until the traction motors overcome the resistances. Run resistance, ramp resistance, and curve resistance are the resistances that the train must overcome at a constant speed. However, it is known that the acceleration of high-speed trains is very high and the resistance that the train sets must overcome for the change in speeds is acceleration resistance.</em></p> <p><em>This study aimed to calculate the acceleration, time, curve, ramp and distance, under certain constraints, for the total resistance value of YHT 65000 train by using the Particle Swarm Method as to obtain the minimum and maximum. Although, the results showed that the Particle Swarm Method returned very successful results for the minimum resistance, the same cannot be said for the maximum resistance.</em></p> Mi̇ne SERTSÖZ Mehmet FİDAN Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 4 2 111 122 10.26900/jsp.4.009 SMART FARMING- PRECISION AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES <p><em>According to the current increase rate of the world population it is expected to reach 10 billion people in 2050. In addition, agricultural production area and agricultural labor force is constantly decreasing with the migration of rural population to the city with the use of agricultural areas for residential and industrial purposes. Therefore, it is a necessity to develop and disseminate systematic and efficient production techniques that will provide sufficient nutrition for humanity.</em></p> <p><em>The agricultural sector also benefits greatly from what Industry 4.0 brings. IoT (Internet of Things), AI (Artificial Intelligence), Remote Sensing &amp; ImP (Remote Sensing and Image Processing) techniques have been integrated with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and have been actively used in agriculture in recent years. In addition to the soil characteristic and meteorological data collected by sensors, high resolution multi-band images taken from satellite systems and unmanned aerial vehicles are transferred to decision support platforms and artificial intelligence support can be used to determine the stress factors of crops and propose instant solution alternatives.</em></p> <p><em>Within the scope of this paper, in a study carried out by HEKTAŞ R &amp; D Center which develops innovation projects in the agricultural sector with the motto of “Pioneer of smart agriculture” general information will be given on the practical use of some of the above mentioned precision agricultural techniques during phenological growth stages of the wheat in Thrace region. </em></p> Aylin KIRKAYA Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 4 2 123 136 10.26900/jsp.4.010 AN EVALUATION OF A CONSTRAINED MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHM <p><em>Real world optimization problems involve multiple conflicting objectives (such as minimizing cost while maximizing the quality of a product) and are subject to constraints (such as physical feasibility or budget limitations) which makes them interesting to solve. Over the last decades, evolutionary algorithms have been largely used in solving optimization problems in various fields of science. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a constrained version of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm 2 (NSGA 2), a multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm, written in MATLAB. The developed NSGA 2 is compared, in terms of convergence and diversity of the obtained solutions, to a number of popular constrained multi-objective evolutionary algorithms from the literature. Widely used four benchmark problems (including CONSTR, OSY, SRN, and TNK problems) with varying difficulty and type of constraints are reviewed and used. The NSGA 2 obtained the lowest values of inverse generational distance (IGD) values for almost all the problems. These results show that the developed constrained NSGA 2 is an effective technique and is competitive to the other optimization methods in the literature.</em></p> Youssef ALIOUI Reşat ACAR Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-05-12 2020-05-12 4 2 137 146 10.26900/jsp.4.011 THE EFFECT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT FLY ASH IN GRANITE BODY ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND TECHNICAL PROPERTIES <p><em>In this study 2-5-10 wt.% thermal power plant ash was added to the granite body replace feldspar to use environmental waste in the ceramic body and to reduce production costs. Loss on inginitions, fired bending strengths, dry strength, fired shrinkages, water absorbtion and colorimeter degrees were measured. Microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (Edx) and x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements. After sintering, it was determined that 2 wt.% fly ash can be used in granite body. In sintered body, according to XRD phase analysis, amount of free quartz and mullite decreased and albite formation was observed. While the fired strength value is 399 kg/cm2 in standard body, it is 315 kg/cm2 in 2 wt.% fly ash added body. In the experiment with 2 wt.% ash additive, according to SEM images, the number and volume of large pores increased while small pores decreased. The ability of pressing of the sample with 10wt.% ash additive was negatively affected due to the excess amount of fine ash and so occure lamination and bloating.</em></p> Savaş ELMAS Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti 2020-05-12 2020-05-12 4 2 147 156 10.26900/jsp.4.012