JOURNAL OF LIFE ECONOMICS <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Journal of Life Economics&nbsp;<strong>(E-ISSN: 2148-4139 &amp; DOI Prefix:&nbsp;10.15607)</strong></em>&nbsp;is&nbsp;<strong>an&nbsp;international peer-reviewed&nbsp;</strong>and<strong>&nbsp;periodical journal.</strong><em>&nbsp;It aims to create a forum on economic rationale of life. It brings together the views and studies&nbsp;of academicians, researchers and professionals working in&nbsp; economics.&nbsp;The journal aims to include original papers in the main titles of economics. In this framework, high quality theoretical and applied articles are going to be published.&nbsp;</em>The articles in the Journal is published in 4 times a year;&nbsp;&nbsp;WINTER&nbsp;(January),&nbsp; SPRING (April), SUMMER (July)&nbsp;and&nbsp;AUTUMN&nbsp;(October).&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><em>When the&nbsp; article is accepted for publication in the </em><em>Journal of Life Economics</em><em>, authors transfer all copyright in the article to the </em><em>Rating Academy </em><em>Ar-Ge Yazılım Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık ve Organizasyon Ticaret Ltd. Şti</em><em>.</em><em>The authors reserve all proprietary right other than copyright, such as patent rights.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Everyone who is listed as an author in this article should have made a substantial, direct, intellectual contribution to the work and</em><em> should take public responsibility for it.</em></p> <p><em>Th</em><em>is paper contains works that have </em><em>not previously published or not under consideration for publication in other journals. </em></p> (Özge UYSAL ŞAHİN) (Ali Öztekin) Sat, 02 May 2020 17:17:12 +0000 OJS 60 A COMPARISON OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION, ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND MOORA METHODS IN ESTIMATION OF THE SAFETY OF COUNTRIES <p><em>In recent years, because of the developments in software and hardware technology, the datasets used in research have expanded, and with the effects of artificial intelligence technologies, the models used in forecasts have enabled to obtain results with broader meanings. In this study, using the crime index calculated to reveal the crime rates in the countries every year, the safety positions of the 106 countries was estimated. For this purpose, logistic regression analysis, artificial neural networks and MOORA method, which is one of the multi-criteria decision making methods and also not a classification method, has been used to provide a different point of view. As a result of the study, it is determined that the correct classification rate of estimations made according to the safety of countries with artificial neural networks method is higher than other methods.</em></p> Ozlem DENİZ BAŞAR, Elif GÜNEREN GENÇ Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 MILLENNIAL VERSUS NON-MILLENNIAL USERS: CONTEXT OF CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT LEVELS ON INSTAGRAM STORIES (EXTENDED VERSION) <p><em>Ephemeral social media platforms, which displays rich media, primarily images and videos, are only available only for a short period of time. It has recently attracted researchers ' attention to better understand how ephemeral social media platforms impact users of social media. We design quantitative survey study that sampling data collected over two weeks (N= 149) to understand engagement differences (consuming, participating, producing) between Millennials and Non-millennials (the Silent Generation, the Baby Boomers, Generation X), on one of the leading ephemeral mobile platforms - on Instagram “Stories”. Our data demonstrated that Millennials show statistically significant differences by engaging Instagram “Stories” than Non-millennials. However, results unexpectedly demonstrate that non-millennial (age 40 and more in 2020) users show the same engagement level in “watching” and “reading” ephemeral content as Millennial users.</em></p> <p><em>Keywords: Instagram Stories, Customer Engagement, Ephemeral Social Media, User-generated content, Millennials</em></p> Khalil ISRAFILZADE, Najaf BABAYEV Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 THE CHANGE IN THE MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF MEDIA INSTITUTIONS IN THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (INDUSTRY 4.0) PROCESS <p><em>Industry 4.0 refers to the latest development of industry, which began in the 18th century in England. In this period, the industrial sector, which has passed through three important stages with the use of steam power, electricity and computer in industry, is facing the fourth stage, called Industrial 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, with the emergence of the concept of i the Internet of things ”. The fact that objects reach the internet and communicate with other devices, in other words, objects become “smart objects Nes has brought the concept of the Internet of objects into the agenda. Intelligent objects have a place in daily life; The mechanization of production in the agricultural, industrial and service sectors is thus interpreted as minimizing the need for human beings. The situation shows that there will be radical changes in the working principles of the sectors. The change in the production method and the need for human beings bring the questions about how the management structures of the enterprises will continue. It is envisaged that the mechanization of Industry 4.0 will be highly effective on the service sector, which is a labor-intensive sector, and the enterprises operating in the sector. In this study, it is aimed to discuss the possible changes in the management structures of the organizations operating in the media sector which are sub-sectors of the service sector during the Industry 4.0 process. In the study, the concept of Industry 4.0 was first defined and its scope was analyzed. Then media organizations and management structures were examined. Finally, evaluations and projections regarding the possible change of the management structure of media organizations within the scope of Industry 4.0 are given. Literature review and editing methods were used in the study.</em></p> Zeynep AYER, Birol AKGÜL Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 DATA PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF MAIN METAL INDUSTRY COMPANIES IN BIST 100 WITH DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS <p><em>Although Main Metal Industry is an important factor in the development of the country's economy and industry, the shrinkage of the sector during crisis periods negatively affects the employment and economy of the country. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of Main Metal Industry companies on a yearly basis. Performance evaluation is the process of monitoring the resources used by the enterprise, the goods and services produced, the results obtained, and collecting data in a regular and systematic way, analyzing, interpreting and reporting them. Calculation and measurement of performance; is a difficult and complex process. Firm-level and sector-based financial evaluations guide the performance evaluation of firms for investors and managers. However, evaluating the financial ratios as input and output variables and evaluating the performance of the firm provide more realistic interpretations. In this study, the effectiveness of 17 Main Metal Industry companies traded in BIST was analyzed using Data Envelopment Analysis Method (DEA) for the period of 2010-2018. In the study, input variables; Liquidity ratio, Current ratio, Total Debt / Equity, Total Assets; Output variables; Net Income, Return on Equity, Net Profit Margin, Tobin Q. Entry-oriented activity analysis was conducted and according to the results of the analysis, activity scores in 2010-2018 period, annual average values of all relevant companies; According to CCR and BCC models, it shows a general downward trend from 2012 to 2018. Although it showed a slightly positive trend in 2018 compared to 2016-2017, it was found to be lower than 2012.</em></p> Ümran ŞENGÜL Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 FISCAL DEFICITS AND INTEREST RATES IN BRICS ECONOMIES: TESTING THE KEYNESIAN-RICARDIAN OPPOSITION <p><em>This current study was aimed at exploring the consequential effects of both short- and long-term interest rates on fiscal deficits in BRICS economies. The panel vector error correction model (PVECM) techniques were employed to capture both long-run and short-run dynamics between variables. Using annual panel data, spanning the period 1995 to 2019, which was derived from OECD and IMF, this current study discovered a positive and significant relationship between both short- and long-term interest rates in BRICS economies. Moreover, the results of the study revealed a negative and significant relationship between GDP and fiscal deficits. These results confirmed that fiscal deficits hypothetically crowd out private investment and consumption through increased effects on interest rates. Therefore, the implementation of policy mix (interaction between monetary policy and fiscal policy) was recommended to unnecessary or unproductive government expenditure that may result in increased fiscal deficits and interest rate in BRICS economies. </em></p> Edward Kagiso MOLEFE, Gisele MAH Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 BRANDING AND “BRANDS OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS” IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESS & GLOBAL ACTIVITY OF BRANDS <p><em>It was seen in globalization process that some brands whose superiorities have been recognized in the World have become global brand due to the fact that their sales showed greatest increase thanks to global economy policies and direct foreign investments. In this study, the role of brand strategies of high-income businesses demonstrating high growth with the global economy in the background are investigated although in fact they have been existed earlier. Also, it is seen that since national markets in the old economy systems and international markets in global economy systems are quite different, the globalizing corporations determine their brand strategies by the global economy conditions. Because any product does not enter into the World economy at the same easiness since request and needs of the global consumption community are different due to the regional, local and cultural differences in the World in order for any product that is desired to be global brand to be offered to the World market in a qualified way. Therefore, since being active in the World market with any product having certain specifications entails to have a strong brand and high financial power, rather very big corporations in the World were only be able to operate in the initial and development years of the globalization. Within the scope of this study, remedies for much smaller businesses in the World to build a global brand in order to increase their incomes are being investigated. </em></p> İbrahim Bora ORAN Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF MANAGERS' PERCEPTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL INJUSTICE ON INTENTION TO QUIT, LIFE SATISFACTION, WITHDRAWAL AND INCIVILITY BEHAVIORSIN WORKING LIFE <p><em>The perception of injustice in workplaces is among the factors that harm individuals and organizations and create negative results. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of managers' perceptions of organizational injustice on intention to quit, life satisfaction, withdrawal and incivility behaviors. Target population of the study was composed of the managers of 51 companies operating in the Machinery Industry in Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone, Kayseri. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research the created model. As a result of analyzes, it was determined that the perception of organizational justice positively affected the intention to quit and incivility behavior, while it did not have a significant effect on life satisfaction and withdrawal behaviors.</em></p> Ebru AYKAN Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 SHOWCASE CITY: POTANTIAL ECONOMIC GAINS IN THE SAMPLE OF SİLOPİ <p><em>Silopi is much closer than Şırnak where the county to Iraq and Syria. It opens to the Middle East with The Customs Gate of Habur. Here is the gateway to transport and cultural interaction as an international trade and tourism gateway. If the Silopi is made in province, it will be a border town where traders, industrialists and tourists from the Middle East will first come and go as it is a place where international highways pass. Thus Silopi will provide the functionality to showcase the city for New Silk Road, the Middle East, Turkey and Southeastern Anatolia region. What a store showcase is, it is showcase city of a country. Both of them have to be clean, lively and attractive. But a showcase city with high economic potential like Silopi will also be robust infrastructure, compatible with its surroundings, developing and sustainable due to its border city feature.</em></p> İrfan KALAYCI Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 INNOVATION AWARENESS OF UNIVERSITIES IN MARMARA REGION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON MISSION AND VISION STATEMENTS <p><em>Although they are institutions affected by the rapid change and transformation process in the world, universities are among the sources that bring this change and transformation. Since the change and transformation process is continuous, universities should always aim novelties that creates institutional and social value –in other words, innovation-. The objectives and future foresights of institutions are announced through mission and vision statements. The mission and vision determined by the top management of the institution, fulfil the function of guiding the employees and adopting the institutional objectives. Therefore, effective mission and vision statements are necessary for institutions to use all their sources towards institutional objectives. Therefore, mission and vision statements of the universities should include terms about innovation. In respect to this, the aim of this study is to analyse the mission and vision statements of the faculties of economic &amp; administrative sciences, political sciences, social sciences, administrative sciences, economics, business, business &amp; management; business, administrative &amp; social sciences of the state and foundation universities located in Marmara Region comparatively.</em></p> Filiz Tufan EMİNİ KURTULUŞ, Çağlar Eren AYAZ Copyright (c) 2020 Rating Academy Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000