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One ghazal’s Nesimi
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Keywords

Imaduddin Nesimi
ghazal
Azeri Turkic poetry
Ḥurufsm
the Qur’an
face
skin İmadəddin Nəsimi
qəzəl
Azəri-türk poeziyası
hürufilik
Quran
üz
dəri

How to Cite

Gasımova, A. (2021). One ghazal’s Nesimi. HOMEROS, 4(3), 125-135. https://doi.org/10.33390/homeros.4.3.01

Abstract

The paper deals with a ghazal of ‘Imaduddin Nesimi (d. 1417) with the matla “Yəqin, ya Rəbb, yüzündür rəqq-i mənşur.” (O God! Your Face is a parchment unfolded.) Nesimi is one of the prominent figures of the Medieval Azeri Turkic literature.  Although his poetry testifies to the variability of philosophical thoughts, his name associates with Ḥurufi teaching; the poet was a follower of Fadlullah Astarabadi (d.1394) and a passionate agitator of Ḥurufism. It seems he was one of the important figures of that mystic sect, and his poetry and personality were so prominent that, according to Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d.1449), even the tenet itself  sometimes was known as nesimiyya.

İn this article, first, a brief account of importance of human face in sufi-hurufi thought, especially in Nesimi’s poetry will be provided. According to Ḥurufi thought Adam is considered to be manifestation (maẓhar) of the divine eternal word; his eyes, eyebrows, eyelashes, cheeks, lips, mouth, dimple, chin, forehead, and face in general were embodiment of sacred 28 and 32 letters of Arabic/ Persian alphabets, and the human face itself was the holy writing mentioned in the Qur’an in Q. 52:2–3 in the phrase wa­kitabin masturin fi raqqin manshurin (By a book scribed, in a parchment unfolded)

           Then the above mentioned ghazal will be discussed beyt by beyt.  Through the discussion it becomes clear that the face with its parts is the most important aspect of speculations in Ḥurufism for exemplifying divine theophany – the state of kashf.

Within the analysis of the above ghazal a special attention will be given to the importance of the skin, eyes, curl and lips. I will demonstrate how the poet uses ayats and images of the Holy Qur’an to glorify Divine/Human Beauty, The usage of the images and ayats of the Qur’an, as well as depiction of the scene of Paradise as metaphors of the face reveal some important points; first, the ghazal answers to some important questions about heterodox interpretation of the Qur’an. Further, it makes the heterodox philosophy easier for acceptance representing it in the familiar Qur’anic language of Muslims. Finally, it successfully serves for poetic embellishment. 

I argue that although the poem apparently seems to be a product of theophanic ecstasy, and each beyt expresses one of important statements of Sufi-hurufi thought, the poet unites all passages with invisible links. 

https://doi.org/10.33390/homeros.4.3.01
PDF (Türkçe)

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